Monday, November 26, 2012

Punctuation


标点符号


A capital letter is used:
大写字母用于:
*  to begin a sentence;
    句子的开头;
e.g.  The dictionary is heavy.

*  for the first letter or proper nouns;
    专有名词的第一字母:
e.g.  Pei Yan is staying in Taman Miharja.

*  for the pronoun ‘I’;
    人称代词“I”;
e.g.   My father and I are going to the restaurant.

A full stop is used at the end of a sentence.
句号用于句子的结尾。
e.g.   Bring your umbrella. It might rain later.

A question mark is used at the end of a question.
问号用于疑问句的结尾。
e.g.   Why are you late?

A comma is used to separate words in a list.
逗号用于分隔一系列的词语。
e.g.
I need a cardboard, a pair of scissors and a marker.

An exclamation mark is used to express strong feelings.
叹号用于表达强烈的感情。
e.g.   Ouch! That hurts!

An apostrophe is used:
撇号用于:
*  to show possession;
    显示拥有权;
    e.g.  That is the baby’s milk bottle.

*  in a short form.
    缩写。
    e.g.   She’s getting married next month.

Sunday, November 11, 2012

Sentence Types


句子的形式

A simple sentence consists of only one main idea.

单句里只有一个主要的概念。

e.g.   Janet is my best friend.
          Your shoes are dirty.

A compound sentence consists or two or more simple sentences joined by a conjunction.

复句是由两个或以上的单句,以连词连接而成。

e.g.
I like knitting but my sister likes cooking.
You can come with me or you can stay here.

We can also use a relative pronoun to join sentences.

我们也可以用关系代词来连接句子。

e.g.
I know the man. He took your motorcycle.
I know the man who took your motorcycle.



Exercise 21 a
Write ‘S’ for the simple sentences and ‘C’ for compound sentences.

1. My mother works as a clerk in this 
    company. (      )

2. The class is making a lot of noise. (      )

3. We waited for the men buy they did 
    not turn up. (      )

4. He set up the tent while Jane made the fire. (      )

Exercise 21 b
Complete the compound sentences by using ‘and’, ‘or’ or ‘so’.

1. I switched on the cooker _____ Molly 
    put in the rice.

2. We have visitors tonight _____ my mother
    is cooking a lot.

3. We have to hurry up _____ we will be late.

Exercise 21 c
Join the simple sentences using ‘who’, ‘which’ or ‘whose’.

1. That is the boy. He helped the old man yesterday.
    ____________________________________

2. Janice gave some food to the dog. 
    It had a broken leg.
    ____________________________________

3. We donated some money to the pupil. 
    His father was struck by cancer.
    ____________________________________


Saturday, November 10, 2012

Questions and Responses

疑问句和回应


A question is a sentence that asks for information.
疑问句是用于询问资讯的句子。

e.g.   Are you hungry?

A response is the answer given to a question. It can be in the positive (yes) or negative (no) form.

回应是针对一个疑问句所给予的答复。它可以是肯定式(yes)或否定式(no)。

e.g.   Yes, I am. / Yes, I am hungry.
          No, I am not. / No, I am not hungry.



Exercise 20
Give the positive and negative answers to these questions.

e.g.   Is there a soap in the basin?
         a) Yes, there is.
         b)  No, there isn’t.

1. Is Maria running?
         a) Yes, __________.
         b)  No,  __________.

2. Are the birds singing?
         a) Yes, __________.
         b)  No,  __________.

3. Can you call me tonight?
         a) Yes, __________.
         b)  No,  __________.

4. Did she come yesterday?
         a) Yes, __________.
         b)  No,  __________.

5. Have the boys taken their dinner?
         a) Yes, __________.
         b)  No,  __________.

6. Will he join us for the movie?
         a) Yes, __________.
         b)  No,  __________.


Thursday, November 8, 2012

Positive and Negative Statements

肯定句和否定句


A positive statement does not have the word no or not.

肯定句里没有 no not

e.g.
I am reading a book.
That is a deer.

A negative statement has the word no or not.

否定句里有 no not

e.g.
I am not reading a book.
That is not a deer.

Exercise 19 a
Change the sentences below into negative statements using ‘do not’, ‘does not’ or ‘did not’.

1. Ann and Fay stay here.
_____________________________________
2. I borrowed the pen from my friend.
_____________________________________
3. Alex plays the guitar.
_____________________________________
4. Our teacher explained the topic to us.
_____________________________________

Exercise 19 b
Change the sentences below into negative statements using ‘do not’, ‘does not’ or ‘did not’.

1. The girls do not take dinner early every evening.
_____________________________________
2. Mariam does not stay near the school.
_____________________________________
3. We did not go to the cinema last night.
_____________________________________
4. My brother does not play in the school team.
    _____________________________________


Wednesday, November 7, 2012

Modals


情态动词

A modal is a helping verb. It is always followed by a base verb no matter the subject is singular or plural.

情态动词是助动词,无论主语是单数或复数,情态动词后的动词必须保留原行。

       e.g.
       I must complete all my homework before bedtime.

The negative form of a modal is formed 
by adding ‘not’ after it.

我们在情态动词后加“not”,以构成它的否定式。

       e.g.
       He could not finish the soup.
       We must not play on the road.

Must, could, can, should and may are examples of modals:

情态动词的例子包括 mustcouldcanshould 和 may

**   must is used to show necessity;
       must 用于显示必要性;

       e.g.
       We must clean the house before 
       Mum comes home.

**   could is used to show abilities in the past
       or to ask for a favour in a polite way;
       could 用于显示过去所拥有的能力或
      有礼貌的请求;

       e.g.
       My grandfather could swim very well 
       when he was young.
       Could you help me carry those bags?

**  can is used to show abilities or something 
      that someone is able to do;
      can 用于显示能力或可以做的事;

      e.g.
      Most birds can fly.
      I can lend you that book if you want.

**   should is used to give advice, opinions 
       or to express obligations;
       should 用于表达劝告意见或义务;

       e.g.
       You should do as your mother told you.

**   may is used to show uncertainly or 
       to ask for permission.
       May 用于显示不确定性或征求同意。

       e.g.
       I may visit her today or tomorrow.
       May I go home now?

Sunday, November 4, 2012

Subject-Verb Agreement


主语和动词的配合

A singular subject take a singular verb.

单数主语和单数动词连用。

e.g.
The dog wags its tall excitedly when it sees its master.

A plural subject takes a plural verb.

复数主语和复数动词连用。

e.g.
My brothers always do their homework after dinner.

An uncountable noun takes a singular verb.

不可数名词和单数动词连用。

e.g.
Water is very important in our daily lives.

A collective noun which is considered as a whole unit is used with a singular verb.

被视为整体的集合名词和单数动词连用。

e.g.
The herd of cows is drinking water by the river.

Words like each, every, none, anybody, everybody, each of, one of, neither of, either of, etc. take a singular verb.

Each everynoneanybodyeverybody each of one ofneither of either of 等词和单数动词连用。

e.g    Every pupil has a dictionary.

Friday, November 2, 2012

Present and Past Continuous Tense


现在进行时式和过去进行时式

Verbs in the continuous form are formed using the following rule:
进行时式的动词形式是根据以下的规则构成:

Present continuous tense 现在进行时式
[am / is / are] + [verb / ing]

Past continuous tense 过去进行时式
[was / were] + [verb / ing]

We use the present continuous tense to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.

我们用现在进行时式来显示某事件在这一刻正在发生。它也可以来显示某事件不在这一刻发生。

e.g.   They are having a test now.
          The dog is not sleeping now.

Sometimes, we use the present continuous tense to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.

我们也用现在进行时式来显示某事件在不久的将来会或不会发生。

e.g.   I am meeting my cousin after school.
          She is not going to the library tomorrow.

The past continuous tense is used:
过去进行时式用于以下的情况:

**  when we talk about an action that had 
     already started and was still continuing 
     at a particular time;

   在过去的某时刻已经开始并持续进行的动作;

       e.g.   It was raining at 5 o’clock yesterday.

**   when one action began before another 
       and finished after it.

   一个动作在另一个动作进行前开始,在该动作进行后结束;

      e.g.  
      The boys were playing a game when 
       their uncle came.

**  to describe two actions that were both 
      continuing at the same time in the past. 
      In this case, we use the past continuous
      tense for both actions.

   显示过去某段时间同时进行的两个动作。在这
   况下,两个动作都用过去进行时式。

    e.g.   While the boys were doing their homework, 
              their mother was cooking in the kitchen.


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